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Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare.
Food, Feasts, and Faith: Retrieved 13 August In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.
Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 13 October The American Desk Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 29 April University Press of Kentucky, p.
From Pagan Ritual to Party Night , pp. Penguin Books Ltd; Reprint edition: An encyclopaedia of the Irish folk tradition. Prentice Hall Press, The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain.
Oxford University Press, The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. An Oxford Archaeological Guide.
Retrieved 19 October They were both respected and feared. The Year in Ireland: The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries.
The Silver Bough, Volume 3. Christmas in Ritual and Tradition. In The Celtic Consciousness , ed. A Study in Magic and Religion.
Chapter 63, Part 1: The Religion of the Ancient Celts. Festivals Archived 12 October at the Wayback Machine..
Archived from the original on 2 October Retrieved 2 October Christian leaders made old Celtic and Roman customs into new Christian ones.
Bonfires were once lighted against evil spirits. Now, they kept away the devil. Oral folk-tales of Wessex. Foodlore of Popular Fruits and Vegetables.
Lathrop , Fortress Press, p. Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 19 September Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 25 October And this custom became so favored in popular esteem that, for a long time, it was a regular observance in the country towns of England for small companies to go from parish to parish, begging soul-cakes by singing under the windows some such verse as this: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face.
Trick-or-treating began as souling an English and Irish tradition in which the poor, wearing masks, would go door to door and beg for soul cakes in exchange for people's dead relatives.
Compendium of Symbolic and Ritual Plants in Europe. They were therefore offered at funerals and feasts of the dead, laid on graves, or given to the poor as representatives of the dead.
The baking of these soul cakes is a universal practice". A Slice of History. Like the perennial favourites, hot cross buns; they were often marked with a cross to indicate that they were baked as alms.
Traditionalists, Muslims, and Christians in Africa: Interreligious Encounters and Dialogue. Villagers were also encouraged to masquerade on this day, not to frighten unwelcome spirits, but to honor Christian saints.
Poor churches could not afford genuine relics and instead had processions in which parishioners dressed as saints, angels and devils.
It served the new church by giving an acceptable Christian basis to the custom of dressing up on Halloween.
Another contributor to the custom of dressing up at Halloween was the old Irish practice of marking All Hallows' Day with religious pageants that recounted biblical events.
These were common during the Middle Ages all across Europe. The featured players dressed as saints and angels, but there were also plenty of roles for demons who had more fun, capering, acting devilish, and playing to the crows.
The pageant began inside the church, then moved by procession to the churchyard, where it continued long into the night.
An American Holiday, an American History. Ghosts in Popular Culture and Legend. Since the 16th century, costumes have become a central part of Halloween traditions.
Perhaps the most common traditional Halloween costume is that of the ghost. This is likely because The baking and sharing of souls cakes was introduced around the 15th century: Around the 16th century, the practice of going house to house in disguise a practice called guising to ask for food began and was often accompanied by recitation of traditional verses a practice called mumming.
Wearing costumes, another tradition, has many possible explanations, such as it was done to confuse the spirits or souls who visited the earth or who rose from local graveyards to engage in what was called a Danse Macabre, basically a large party among the dead.
Rising from the Flames: The Experience of the Severely Burned. University of Pennsylvania Press. Halloween, incorporated into the Christian year as the eve of All Saints Day, marked the return of the souls of the departed and the release of devils who could move freely on that night.
Fires lit on that night served to prevent the influence of such spirits and to provide omens for the future. Modern children go from house to house at Halloween with flashlights powered by electric batteries, while jack o'lanterns perhaps with an actual candle, but often with a lightbulb glow from windows and porches.
And even then, the educated folk of the districts concerned, declared that these fires were a relic of papistical days, when they were lit at night to guide the poor souls back to earth.
The New Cambridge Medieval History: Sometimes enacted as at village pageants, the danse macabre was also performed as court masques, the courtiers dressing up as corpses from various strata of society Halloween in der Steiermark und anderswo.
On the other hand the postmodern phenomenon of "antifashion" is also to be found in some Halloween costumes. Black and orange are a 'must' with many costumes.
Halloween — like the medieval danse macabre — is closely connected with superstitions and it might be a way of dealing with death in a playful way.
Christian Origins of Halloween. In Protestant regions souling remained an important occasion for soliciting food and money from rich neighbors in preparation for the coming cold and dark months.
Stations of the Sun: Fires were indeed lit in England on All Saints' Day, notably in Lancashire, and may well ultimately have descended from the same rites, but were essentially party of a Christian ceremony Each did so on a hill near its homestead, one person holding a large bunch of burning straw on the end of a fork.
The rest in a circle around and prayed for the souls of relatives and friends until the flames burned out. The author who recorded this custom added that it gradually died out in the latter part of the century, but that before it had been very common and at nearby Whittingham such fires could be seen all around the horizon at Hallowe'en.
He went on to say that the name 'Purgatory Field', found across northern Lancashire, testified to an even wider distribution, and that the rite itself was called 'Teen'lay'.
From Pagan Ritual to Party Night , p. Archived from the original on 27 July Frank Leslie's popular monthly, Volume 40, November , pp.
Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 23 October Hide it [the great carbuncle] under thy cloak, say'st thou?
Why, it will gleam through the holes, and make thee look like a jack-o'-lantern! Schakel , Bucknell University Press, p.
Legends and Lore of South Carolina. The practice of dressing up and going door to door for treats dates back to the middle ages and the practice of souling.
Whispering Pine Press International. The tradition continued in some areas of northern England as late as the s, with children going from door to door "souling" for cakes or money by singing a song.
Halloween in North America". The Book of Hallowe'en , Boston: Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Co. Archived from the original on 14 October Wright, "A Halloween Story", St.
Nicholas , October , p. The Chicago Tribune also mentioned door-to-door begging in Aurora, Illinois on Halloween in , although not by the term 'trick-or-treating'.
Retrieved 29 October Archived from the original on 4 June Retrieved 17 October A time of spiritual unrest, when the souls of the dead, along with ghosts and evil spirits, were believed to walk the land.
Church bells were run and fires lit to guide these souls on their way and deflect them from haunting honest Christian folk.
Barns and homes were blessed to protect people and livestock from the effects of witches, who were believed to accompany the malignant spirits as they traveld the earth.
Although a rare few continued to divine the future, cast spells, and tell ghost stories in rural communities, woe to anyone who was denounced to the church for engaging in such activities.
These may seem like innocent fun today, but it was deadly serious stuff during the Middle Ages. Celtic Myth and Religion. Parlor Games for the Wise and Otherwise.
Archived from the original on 8 December Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 6 October A Fight for Frights as Tastes Change".
Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 21 July Archived from the original on 8 March Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 22 July Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 8 August Catalog of Copyright Entries: The New York Times.
Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 20 November Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 28 August Archived from the original on 13 August Archived PDF from the original on 15 February Retrieved 29 September Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 12 July Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 3 November Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 3 October All Hallow's Eve was a Western Anglo Christian holiday that revolved around commemorating the dead using humor to intimidate death itself.
Like all holidays, All Hallow's Eve involved traditional treats. The church encouraged an abstinence from meat, which created many vegetarian dishes.
Struggle for Safe and Sane Halloween, c. Pins and Needles in Halloween Candy". Trick, Treat or Myth? Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 23 January Polish Catholics taught their children to pray out loud as they walked through the woods so that the souls of the dead could hear them and be comforted.
Priests in tiny Spanish villages still ring their church bells to remind parishioners to honor the dead on All Hallows Eve.
Andrew James Harvey 31 October Or "Halloween" for short — a fixture on the liturgical calendar of the Christian West since the seventh century.
Archived from the original on 24 May The Vigil is based on the monastic office of Vigils or Matins , when the monks would arise in the middle of the night to pray.
On major feast days, they would have an extended service of readings scriptural, patristic, and from lives of the saints in addition to chanting the psalms.
This all would be done in the dark, of course, and was an opportunity to listen carefully to the Word of God as well as the words of the Church Fathers and great saints.
The Vigil of All Saints is an adaptation of this ancient practice, using the canonical office of Compline at the end. Cor et Lumen Christi Community.
Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 2 November In its first year — AD — over people participated from several countries.
This included special All Saints Vigil masses, extended periods of Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament and parties for children.
In our second year 10, participated. Since these modest beginnings, the Night of Light has been adopted in many countries around the world with vast numbers involved each year from a Cathedral in India to a convent in New Zealand; from Churches in the US and Europe to Africa; in Schools, churches, homes and church halls all ages have got involved.
Although it began in the Catholic Church it has been taken up be other Christians who while keeping its essentials have adapted it to suit their own traditions.
Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 6 November It was invented in , in leafy Chertsey, Surrey, when perhaps 1, people took part.
Now it is a worldwide movement, popular in Africa and the United States. The heart of the Night of Light is an all-night vigil of prayer, but there is room for children's fun too: The minimum gesture is to put a lighted candle in the window, which is in itself too exciting for some proponents of health and safety.
The inventor of the Night of Light is Damian Stayne, the founder of a year-round religious community called Cor et Lumen Christi — heart and light of Christ.
This new movement is Catholic, orthodox and charismatic — emphasising the work of the Holy Spirit. An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church.
The BOS notes that "suitable festivities and entertainments" may precede of follow the service, and there may be a visit to a cemetery or burial place.
My folks are Polish and they celebrate Halloween in a different way. It is time to remember your dead and visit the cemetery and graves of your loved ones.
The Church of England. Archived from the original on 18 May Christianity needs to make clear its positive message for young people.
It's high time we reclaimed the Christian aspects of Halloween," says the Bishop, explaining the background to his letter. Retrieved 22 October Frank Gavin Liturgical Foundation.
Archived from the original on 19 December What, Why, and Resources for Worship". Archived from the original on 23 February Archived from the original on 28 October Other Christians will opt for Halloween alternatives called 'Harvest Festivals', 'Hallelujah Night' or 'Reformation Festivals' — the kids dress up as farmers, Bible characters, or Reformation heroes.
Evangelical Christians and Popular Culture. Evangelicals have found opportunities with both Christmas and Easter to use Christian candy to re-inject religion into these traditionally Christian holidays and boldly reclaim them as their own.
They have increasingly begun to use Halloween, the most candy-centric holiday, as an opportunity for evangelism. Archived from the original on 29 October What's a Christian to Do?
Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 22 November A Companion to the Lesser Feasts and Fasts.
All Saints' Day is the centerpiece of an autumn triduum. In the carnival celebrations of All Hallows' Eve our ancestors used the most powerful weapon in the human arsenal, the power of humor and ridicule to confront the power of death.
The following day, in the commemoration of All Saints, we gave witness to the victory of incarnate goodness embodied in remarkable deeds and doers triumphing over the misanthropy of darkness and devils.
And in the commemoration of All Souls we proclaimed the hope of common mortality expressed in our aspirations and expectations of a shared eternity.
Retrieved 24 October The Catholic Schools of Broome County. Retrieved 7 November While some Christians aren't certain what to make of Halloween — unsure whether to embrace or ignore all the goblins and ghoulishness — some evangelical churches use Oct.
Some use trick-or-treating as an evangelistic opportunity, giving out Bible tracts with candy. The Restored Church of God. Retrieved 21 September Marcus , University of Washington Press, p.
Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 5 March Archived from the original on 29 May Retrieved 29 May Archived from the original on 20 January Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 7 October The New Zealand Herald.
The government of Camarines Sur. Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 27 April Skal, Death Makes a Holiday: A Novel of Halloween , Waxlight Press Find more about Halloween at Wikipedia's sister projects.
Death anniversary Death customs Kaddish Yizkor. Liturgical year of the Catholic Church. Based on the General Roman Calendar Computus Liturgical colours Solemnity Older calendars: Holidays, observances, and celebrations in Algeria.
New Year's Day 1 Yennayer Valentine's Day 14 Tafsut Children's Day 1 Father's Day International Day of Peace International Day of Non-Violence 2 Halloween Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in Algeria, which often represent the major celebrations of the month.
In addition to causing trouble and damaging crops, Celts thought that the presence of the otherworldly spirits made it easier for the Druids, or Celtic priests, to make predictions about the future.
For a people entirely dependent on the volatile natural world, these prophecies were an important source of comfort and direction during the long, dark winter.
To commemorate the event, Druids built huge sacred bonfires, where the people gathered to burn crops and animals as sacrifices to the Celtic deities.
When the celebration was over, they re-lit their hearth fires, which they had extinguished earlier that evening, from the sacred bonfire to help protect them during the coming winter.
In the course of the four hundred years that they ruled the Celtic lands, two festivals of Roman origin were combined with the traditional Celtic celebration of Samhain.
The first was Feralia, a day in late October when the Romans traditionally commemorated the passing of the dead. The second was a day to honor Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruit and trees.
On May 13, A. Pope Gregory III later expanded the festival to include all saints as well as all martyrs, and moved the observance from May 13 to November 1.
By the 9th century the influence of Christianity had spread into Celtic lands, where it gradually blended with and supplanted the older Celtic rites.
All Souls Day was celebrated similarly to Samhain, with big bonfires, parades, and dressing up in costumes as saints, angels and devils.
Celebration of Halloween was extremely limited in colonial New England because of the rigid Protestant belief systems there.
Halloween was much more common in Maryland and the southern colonies. As the beliefs and customs of different European ethnic groups as well as the American Indians meshed, a distinctly American version of Halloween began to emerge.
Colonial Halloween festivities also featured the telling of ghost stories and mischief-making of all kinds.
By the middle of the nineteenth century, annual autumn festivities were common, but Halloween was not yet celebrated everywhere in the country.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, America was flooded with new immigrants. These new immigrants, especially the millions of Irish fleeing the Irish Potato Famine , helped to popularize the celebration of Halloween nationally.
Young women believed that on Halloween they could divine the name or appearance of their future husband by doing tricks with yarn, apple parings or mirrors.
In the late s, there was a move in America to mold Halloween into a holiday more about community and neighborly get-togethers than about ghosts, pranks and witchcraft.
At the turn of the century, Halloween parties for both children and adults became the most common way to celebrate the day. Parties focused on games, foods of the season and festive costumes.
Because of these efforts, Halloween lost most of its superstitious and religious overtones by the beginning of the twentieth century. By the s and s, Halloween had become a secular, but community-centered holiday, with parades and town-wide Halloween parties as the featured entertainment.
Despite the best efforts of many schools and communities, vandalism began to plague some celebrations in many communities during this time.
By the s, town leaders had successfully limited vandalism and Halloween had evolved into a holiday directed mainly at the young.
Due to the high numbers of young children during the fifties baby boom, parties moved from town civic centers into the classroom or home, where they could be more easily accommodated.
Between and , the centuries-old practice of trick-or-treating was also revived. Trick-or-treating was a relatively inexpensive way for an entire community to share the Halloween celebration.
In theory, families could also prevent tricks being played on them by providing the neighborhood children with small treats. Thus, a new American tradition was born, and it has continued to grow.
Who Invented Candy Corn? The distribution of soul cakes was encouraged by the church as a way to replace the ancient practice of leaving food and wine for roaming spirits.
The tradition of dressing in costume for Halloween has both European and Celtic roots. Hundreds of years ago, winter was an uncertain and frightening time.
Food supplies often ran low and, for the many people afraid of the dark, the short days of winter were full of constant worry. On Halloween, when it was believed that ghosts came back to the earthly world, people thought that they would encounter ghosts if they left their homes.
To avoid being recognized by these ghosts, people would wear masks when they left their homes after dark so that the ghosts would mistake them for fellow spirits.
On Halloween, to keep ghosts away from their houses, people would place bowls of food outside their homes to appease the ghosts and prevent them from attempting to enter.
Halloween has always been a holiday filled with mystery, magic and superstition. It began as a Celtic end-of-summer festival during which people felt especially close to deceased relatives and friends.
For these friendly spirits, they set places at the dinner table, left treats on doorsteps and along the side of the road and lit candles to help loved ones find their way back to the spirit world.